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I believe the solutions provided by @gabrielvilella, @binuacs and @DenisZ should work just fine for you. The key here is to use the DateTimeToday formula to achieve dynamism in your formula such that Alteryx always looks up for today's date when running the filter.
I would consider using a more restricted solution using not just the date, but more parts of the filename. This can avoid a lot of errors if someone puts by mistake any non related files on the folder that have the date as part of the name too (most of them have/should have, right?).