To be able to run from the command line you need API/Scheduler for Desktop or Server and you said you do not have that. Now you can run other programs and batch files without API/Scheduler or Server but not Alteryx modules.
go to https://ss64.com for more on CMD or PowerShell to see difference of START vs CALL commands and to better understand the redirects 1> or > or 2>&1.
The above would run a batch file and capture the screen results to the file "logfilenameB" which in this example is a filename in a variable. you could explicitly reference the filename or save it to a variable and reference the variable as I did. Reasons vary according to your needs and I always write output to text ".txt" for ease of write and read to parse.
1> redirects/captures messages associated with good execution 2>$1 says capture the errors as well to the same output...windows splits results into 2 streams, good and bad messaging if you will.
In the case of Alteryx modules the messaging being redirected to the output file is the "Output Log".
You could fire an App but it would not actually do anything because this method has Alteryx expecting all inputs (interface questions) to be answered/passed in the START/Call command. So you never see the interface popup...you can pass the interface responses as parameters but I will not take time here for that.