Tableau allows users to do three very useful things to make data more usable for end users, but this functionality is not available with the Publish To Tableau Server tool.
Foldering of dimensions/measures
Creating hierarchies out of dimensions
Adding custom comments to fields that are visible to users when they hover
This functionality allows subject matter experts to create data sources that can be easily understood by everyone within their organizations.
Please "star" this idea if you would like to see functionality in Alteryx that would enable you to create a metadata layer in the "Publish to Tableau Server" tool or in an accompanying tool.