This takes a ridiculously long time to run but will work for any three elements for any binary operator. It even works for inequalities. If you want to run this, don't try it with the given equation unless you have a couple of hours (it did give the right answer). But I've tested it with small expressions (+, -, *, /) and it can solve for four unique digits in about 30 seconds.
I refused to Append 8 times so used Generate Rows, still used a brute force approach but changing data type and filtering early, coupled with cache and run helped me solve this one!
Nice challenge, took me a while!
This is a great example of Alteryx needing an Execute function to treat a string as a formula.
I got this a different way than the other solutions that I've seen - solution below.