Workflow attached for both the easy way and hard way. My solutions for both are pretty similar to others up-thread!
For the "hard way," I appended the whole tax table to each employee row, then filtered and summarized to pick the appropriate bracket.
After looking through some of the other soutions, I learned about the Dynamic Replace tool. I had never heard of that tool before, so that will be pretty useful in the future!
The first weekly challenge I was able to complete in full! Took a few hours, but, Practice makes perfect!
I have some more detail in my final answer as I don't want to ignore some "taxing" variables.
I know I can clean up the workflow a little, so if anyone has some suggestions, leave a reply!