I took both approaches and actually had a pretty simple solution for the hard way, IMO.
On the hard path, I concatenated all the companies together into one field. Then, inserted a select tool to remove those extra company columns. After that, I used a text to columns tool and split it into rows instead of columns, which did the same thing as the transpose for me. I did a similar formula to group each salary into the proper tax bracket but used the summarize tool to find the minimum tax rate (since the salary could have been less than 2 or more thresholds). I used a second summarize to do the counting.
In the end, this 'hard' solution turned out to be much simpler than I originally thought.
I peeked at some of the posted solutions under the Hard route method and you guys are too fancy!
I am a beginner and so I took the easy route today! 😎 This solution doesn't use Macros or complex formulas - and mostly all tools for beginners, except for just a couple....