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The difference between the different types has to do with the length of the string, as well as the types of characters that can be held in each.
Essentially, string is the most limited type and has a length that does not vary much and only contains simple Latin-1 characters. V_string also contains simple Latin-1 characters but can have a varying length.
Wstring can accept any character and has a length that does not vary much while v_wstring can accept any character and has a variable length.
Generally, these differences are pretty small and don't affect most datasets. I generally set everything to be v_string since it's a pretty accommodating datatype without being too large.