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It sounds like you want to use the Join tool to join the appropriate rate from each country to the original data. Input your original data to the left input and the table of exchange rates to the right input on a Join tool and configure the "Country" field from each table as the joining field.
The Joined output will have your original data with exchange rate data joined to it for any records that match country.
Check out the attached example. Does this look like what you're after?