Seems something is wrong with your account, contact Alteryx. If you look at my screenshot you can see "Certified" whenever i attained something. You need core before moving on to advanced and thus (as you say you have core) something is wrong with your profile :-).
I'm sure I used this account, as I've never made another account - also I've checked my emails for my confirmation of passing and it was emailed to the same email address that this account is attached to.
The badge appears in my notifications feed but not in my "my badges" section - which I agree is odd!